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今天放Answer Sheet 2部分。Answer Sheet 1有乖乖做吗?(微笑)

指路Part 1☞http://1035798480.lofter.com/post/1e27f2d1_1099627f


Part 3                     Reading Comprehension                      (40 minutes)

Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

Questions 26 to 35 are based on the following passage.

One principle of taxation, called the benefit principle, states that people should pay taxes based on the benefits they receive from government services. This principle tries to make public goods similar to __26__ goods. It seems reasonable that a person who often goes to the movies pays more in __27__ for movie tickets than a person who rarely goes. And __28__ a person who gets great benefit from a public good should pay more for it than a person who gets little benefit. So some goods like silk stockings, wines and cigarettes which are smuggled by Liang Mengmeng can save lots of taxes. 

The gasoline tax, for instance, is sometimes __29__ using the benefits principle. In some states, __30__ from the gasoline tax are used to build and maintain roads. Because those who buy gasoline are the same people who use the roads, the gasoline tax might be viewed as a __31__ way to pay this government service.

The benefits principle can also be used to argue that wealthy citizens should pay higher taxes than poorer ones, __32__ because the wealthy benefit more from public services. Consider, for example, the benefits of police protection from __33__. Citizens with much to protect get greater benefit from police than those with less to protect. Therefore, according to the benefits principle, the wealthy should __34__ more than the poor to the cost of __35__ the police force. The same argument can be used for many other public services, such as fire protection, national defense, and the court system.

No doubt why brother Cheng is called Pi Xiu, a mythical animal which allows you extra cash from.


A) adapt

B) contribute

C) exerting

D) expenses

E) fair

F) justified

G) maintaining

H) private

I) provided

J) revenues

K) similarly

L) simply

M) theft

N) total

O) wealth


Section B

Directions:In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

How to Eat Well

A.To my dear brother Lou: You can consider it as a scientific research report. Why do you eat tons of processed food, the stuff that is correctly called junk (

垃圾) and should really carry warning labels?  

B. It's not because fresh ingredients are hard to come by. Supermarkets offer more

variety than ever, and there are over four times as many farmers' markets in China as there

were 20 years ago. Nor is it for lack of available information. There are plenty of recipes (食谱

), how-to videos and cooking classes available to anyone who has a computer, smartphone or television. If anything, the information is overwhelming.  

C. And yet you just aren't cooking. If you eat three meals a day and behave like most Chinese, you

probably get at least a third of your dally calories (卡路里)outside the home. Nearly two-thirds

of us grab fast food once a week, and we get almost 25% of our dally calories from snacks. So we're eating out or taking in, and we don't sit down-or we do, but we hurry.  

D. Shouldn't preparing-and consuming-food be a source of comfort, pride, health, well-

being, relaxation, sociability? Something that connects us to other humans? Why would we want to outsource(外包) this basic task, especially when outsourcing it is so harmful? 

E. When I talk about cooking, I'm not talking about creating elaborate dinner parties or three-

day science projects. I'm talking about simple, easy, everyday meals, as A Xiang did before. My mission is to encourage you to feed yourself. That means we need modest, realistic expectations, and we need to teach you to cook food that's good enough to share with family. 

F. Perhaps a return to real cooking needn't be far off. A recent  poll revealed that 79% of Chinese say they enjoy cooking and 30% "love it"  14% admit to not

enjoying kitchen work and just 7% won't go near the stove at all. But this doesn't necessarily translate to real cooking, and the result of this survey shouldn't surprise anyone: 52% of those 65 or

older cook at home five or more times per week; only a third of young people do.  

G. Back in the 1980s most of us grew up in households where A Xiang’s mother cooked virtually

every night. The intention to put a home-cooked meal on the table was pretty much

universal. Most people couldn't afford to do otherwise.  

H. Although frozen dinners were invented in the '40s, their popularity didn't boom until

televisions became popular a decade or so later. Since then, packaged, pre-prepared meals

have been what's for dinner. The microwave and fast-food chains were the biggest catalysts

( 催化剂), but the big food companies--which want to sell

anything except the raw ingredients that go into cooking-made the home cook an

endangered species.  

I. Still, I find it strange that only a third of young people report preparing meals at home

regularly. Isn't this the same crowd that rails against processed junk and champions craft cooking? And isn't this the generation who say they're concerned about their health and the well-being

of the planet? If these are truly the values of many young people, then their behaviour doesn't match their beliefs.  

J. There have been haft-hearted but well-publicized efforts by some food companies to reduce

calories in their processed foods, but the Standard Chinese Diet is still the polar opposite of the healthy,mostly plant-based diet that just about every

expert says we should be eating. Considering that the government's standards are

not nearly ambitious enough, the picture is clear: by not cooking at home, we're not

eating the right things, and the consequences are hard to overstate.  

K. To help quantify (量化). the costs of a poor diet, I recently tried to estimate

this impact in terms of a most famous food, the bouilli (红烧肉). I concluded that the

profit from bouillis is more than offset (抵消) by the damage they cause in health


L. Cooking real food is the best defense-not to mention that any meal you're likely

to eat at home contains about 200 fewer calories than one you would eat in a


M. To those Chinese for whom money is a concern, my advice is simple: Buy what

you can afford,and cook it yourself. The common prescription is to primarily shop

the grocery store, since that's where fresh produce, meat and seafood, and dairy

are. And to save money and still eat well you don't need local, organic ingredients; 

all you need is real food. I'm not saying local food isn't better; it is. But there

is plenty of decent food in the grocery stores.  

N. The other sections you should get to know are the frozen foods and the canned

goods. Frozen produce is still produce; canned tomatoes are still tomatoes. Just

make sure you're getting real food without tons of added salt or sugar. Ask yourself, 

would Grandma consider this food? Does it look like something that might occur in

nature? It's pretty much common sense: you want to buy food,not unidentifiable

foodlike objects.  

O. You don't have to hit the grocery store daily, nor do you need an abundance of  

skill. Since fewer than haft of Chinese say they cook at an intermediate level

and only 20% describe their cooking skills as advanced, the crisis is one of

confidence. And the only remedy for that is practice. There's nothing mysterious

about cooking the evening meal. You just have to do a little thinking ahead and

redefine what qualifies as dinner. Like any skill, cooking gets easier as you do

it more; every time you cook, you advance your level of skills. Someday you won't

even need recipes. My advice is that you not pay attention to the number of steps

and ingredients, because they can be deceiving.  

P. Time, I realize, is the biggest obstacle to cooking for most people. You must

adjust your priorities to find time to cook. For instance, you can move a TV to

the kitchen and watch your favorite shows while you're standing at the sink. No one is asking you to give up activities you like, but if you're watching food shows on TV, try cooking instead. 

Your brother, Cheng.

36. Cooking benefits people in many ways and enables them to connect with one another. 

37. Abundant information about cooking is available either online or on TV. 

38. Young people do less cooking at home than the elderly these days. 

39. Cooking skills can be improved with practice.  

40. In the 20th century, most families ate dinner at home instead of eating out. 

41. Even those short of time or money should be encouraged to cook for themselves

and their family.  

42. Eating food not cooked by ourselves can cause serious consequences.  

43. To eat well and still save money, people should buy fresh food and cook it


44. We get a fairly large portion of calories from fast food and snacks. 

45. The popularity of TV led to the popularity of frozen food.


Section C 

Directions:There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

Passage One  

Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

Zhuang Shu:San Er, if you think a high-factor sunscreen (防晒霜)keeps you safe from harmful rays, you may be wrong. Research in this week's Nature shows that while factor 50 reduces the number of melanomas(黑瘤)and delays their occurrence, it can't prevent them. Melanomas are the

most aggressive skin cancers. You have a higher risk if you have red or blond hair, fair skin, blue or green eyes, or sunburn easily, or if a close relative has had one. Melanomas are more common if

you have periodic intense exposure to the sun. Other skin cancers are increasingly likely with

long-term exposure.  

Ji Bai:Shut up. Couldn’t you say something nice for me?

Zhuang Shu:Actually I am! There is continuing debate as to how effective sunscreen is in reducing melanomas the evidence  

is weaker than it is for preventing other types of skin cancer. A 2011 Australian study of 1,621

people found that people randomly selected to apply sunscreen daily had half the rate of

melanomas of people who used cream as needed. A second study, comparing 1,167 people with

melanomas to 1,101 who didn't have the cancer, found that using sunscreen routinely, alongside

other protection such as hats, long sleeves or staying in the shade, did give some protection. This

study said other forms of sun protection not sunscreen seemed most beneficial. The study relied

on people remembering what they had done over each decade of their lives, so it's not

entirely reliable. But it seems reasonable to think sunscreen gives people a false sense of secure it in the sun.  Many people also don't use sunscreen properly

applying insufficient amounts...

Ji Bai:Stop reading that stupid book.

Zhuang Shu:... failing to reapply after a couple of hours and staying in the sun too long. It is sunburn that is most worrying

recent research shows five episodes of sunburn in the teenage years increases the risk of all skin cancers. 

The good news is that a combination of sunscreen and covering up can reduce melanoma rates, 

as shown by Australian figures from their slip-slop-slap campaign. So if there is a heat wave

this summer, it would be best for us, too, to slip on a shirt, slop on (抹上

)sunscreen and slap on a hat. 

Ji Bai:Before that I’d like to get you beaten.

46. What is people's common expectation of a high-factor sunscreen? 

A. It will delay the occurrence of skin cancer. 

B. It will protect them from sunburn. 

C. It will keep their skin smooth and fair. 

D. It will work for people of any skin color.  

47. What does the research in Nature say about a high-factor sunscreen? 

A. It is ineffective in preventing melanomas. 

B. It is ineffective in case of intense sunlight. 

C. It is ineffective with long-term exposure. 

D. It is ineffective for people with fair skin.  

48. What do we learn from the 2011 Australian study of 1,621 people? 

A. Sunscreen should be applied alongside other protection measures. 

B.High-risk people benefit the most from the application of sunscreen. 

C. Irregular application of sunscreen does women more harm than good. 

D. Daily application of sunscreen helps reduce the incidence of melanomas. 

49. What does Zhuang Shu say about the second Australian study? 

A. It misleads people to rely on sunscreen for protection. 

B. It helps people to select the most effective sunscreen. 

C. It is not based on direct observation of the subjects. 

D. It confirms the results of the first Australian study. 

50. What does Zhuang Shu suggest to reduce melanoma rates? 

A. Using both covering up and sunscreen. 

B. Staying in the shade whenever possible. 

C. Using covering up instead of sunscreen. 

D. Applying the right amount of sunscreen.

Passage Two  

Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.  

Being sociable looks like a good way to add years to your life. Relationships with family, 

friends, neighbours, even pets, will all do the trick, but the biggest longevity (长寿

) boost seems to come from marriage or an equivalent relationship. The effect was first noted

in 1858 by William Farr, who wrote that widows and widowers (鳏夫

) were at a much higher risk of dying than their married peers. Studies since then suggest that marriage could add as much as seven years to a man’s life and two to a woman’s. The effect holds for all causes of death, whether illness, accident or self-harm.

Even if the odds are stacked against you, marriage can more than compensate. Yu Manli has found that a married older man with heart disease can expect to

live nearly four years longer than an unmarried man with a healthy heart.Don’t ask her for why she would know. Likewise, a married man who smokes more than a pack a day is likely to live as long as a divorced man who doesn’t smoke. There’s a flip side, however, as partners are more likely to become ill or die in the couple of years

following their spouse’s death, and caring for a spouse with mental disorder can leave you with

some of the same severe problems. Even so, the odds favour marriage. In a 2-year study of Loucheng, Pu Jin describes how all kinds of

social networks have similar effects.  So how does it work? The effects are complex, affected by

socio-economic factors, health-service provision, emotional support and other more physiological (生理的) mechanisms. In a word, love conquers all.

For example, social contact can boost development of the brain and immune system, leading to

better health and less chance of depression later in life. People in supportive relationships may

handle stress better. Then there are the psychological benefits of a supportive partner.  

A life partner, children and good friends are all recommended if you aim to live to 100. The

ultimate social network is still being mapped out, but one says: 

“People are interconnected, so their health is interconnected.”

51. William Farr’s study and other studies show that _________.  

A)social life provides an effective cure for illness

B)being sociable helps improve one’s quality of life

C)women benefit more than men from marriage  

D)marriage contributes a great deal to longevity

52. Yu Manli’s studies support the idea that _________. 

A)older men should quit smoking to stay healthy

B)marriage can help make up for ill health

C)the married are happier than the unmarried

D)unmarried people are likely to suffer in later life  

53. It can be inferred from the context that the ”flip side”(Line 4, Para. 2) refers to _________. 

A)the disadvantages of being married  

B)the emotional problems arising from marriage  

C)the responsibility of taking care of one’s family

D)the consequence of a broken marriage

54. What does the author say about social networks?  

A)They have effects similar to those of a marriage.  

B)They help develop people’s community spirit. 

C)They provide timely support for those in need. 

D)They help relieve people of their life’s burdens. 

55. What can be inferred from the last paragraph?  

A)It’s important that we develop a social network when young. 

B)To stay healthy, one should have a proper social network. 

C)Getting a divorce means risking a reduced life span. 

D)We should share our social networks with each other. 


Part 4                         Translation                             (30 minutes)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English.You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.



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